Definition of Inductive Effect
Inductive Effect – In any organic compound, the electron pair of a polar covalent bond is not exactly in the middle of that bond. This electron pair is more attracted to the atom which has higher electronegativity.
Hence, “the displacement of the electron pair of a covalent bond in a molecule towards the more electronegativity atom” (Displacement) is called the inductive effect.“
Examples of Inductive Effect
Suppose the Y atom in a CY bond is more electronegative than the carbon atom, then the electron pair of the bond will be displaced somewhat toward the Y atom.
Due to this, the electron density on the Y atom will become slightly higher. Then, it will get a partial negative charge and at the same time, due to a decrease in electron density on the C atom, it will get a partial positive charge.
In this carbon chain, the electron of the C1-CL bond will be closer to CL than to C1. Due to this, there will be a negative charge on the CL atom and a positive charge on the C1 atom.
Now due to the positive charge on the C1 atom, the electrons of the C2- -C1 bond will be displaced towards C1. As a result, a positive charge will come on – C2, but this positive charge will be less than the positive charge of C1.
Similarly, small positive charges will also be generated on C3, and C4, which will gradually become weaker. This effect is due to electron displacement and is permanent. In fact, after the fourth carbon atom, this effect becomes so small that it has no experimental significance.